what is utilitarianism in ethics
In the golden rule of Jesus of Nazareth, we read the complete spirit of the ethics of utility. the only, book-length treatment of the subject matter. " Thus, the aggregation of utility becomes futile as both pain and happiness are intrinsic to and inseparable from the consciousness in which they are felt, rendering impossible the task of adding up the various pleasures of multiple individuals. ":467 Trying to apply the utility calculation on each and every occasion is likely to lead to a sub-optimal outcome. Most human beings are speciesists. Russell Hardin (1990) rejects such arguments. There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. This is opposed to deontological ethics. The concept has been applied towards social welfare economics, the crisis of global poverty, the ethics of raising animals for food, and the importance of avoiding existential risks to humanity. The life of [the Archbishop] would still be more valuable than that of the chambermaid; and justice, pure, unadulterated justice, would still have preferred that which was most valuable. This is considered in The Theory of Legislation, where Bentham distinguishes between evils of the first and second order. Now it is evident from the nature of God, viz. Uppsala: Fricke Fabian (2002), Verschiedene Versionen des negativen Utilitarismus, Kriterion, vol.15, no.1, pp. ", Laing, Jacqueline A. An Introduction to the Principals of Morals and Legislation, Jeremy Bentham, 1789 ("printed" in 1780, "first published" in 1789, "corrected by the Author" in 1823.) It may be possible to uphold the distinction between persons whilst still aggregating utility, if it accepted that people can be influenced by empathy. utilitarianism (ū″til″ĭ-ter′ē-ă-ni″zĕm) The moral philosophy that holds that an action is ethical according to its utility or usefulness in enhancing the welfare, safety, happiness, or pleasure of the community at large. 196-224. Adams, Robert Merrihew. In a footnote printed in the second edition of Utilitarianism, Mill says: "the morality of the action depends entirely upon the intention—that is, upon what the agent wills to do. In Chapter VII, Bentham says: "The business of government is to promote the happiness of the society, by punishing and rewarding.… In proportion as an act tends to disturb that happiness, in proportion as the tendency of it is pernicious, will be the demand it creates for punishment. "I cannot give a satisfactory account of the meaning of judgments of this kind," he wrote (p. 304). Samuel Scheffler takes a different approach and amends the requirement that everyone be treated the same. The word utility is used to mean general well-being or happiness, and Mill's view is that utility is the consequence of a good action. He believes that "it is not only impossible but very dangerous to attempt to maximize the pleasure or the happiness of the people, since such an attempt must lead to totalitarianism. 20–22, Broome John (1991), Weighing Goods, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, p. 222, Goodin, Robert E. "Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy.". For instance, Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, described utility as "that property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness...[or] to prevent the happening of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness to the party whose interest is considered.". " Paley notes that, although he speaks of the happiness of communities, "the happiness of a people is made up of the happiness of single persons; and the quantity of happiness can only be augmented by increasing the number of the percipients, or the pleasure of their perceptions" and that if extreme cases, such as people held as slaves, are excluded the amount of happiness will usually be in proportion to the number of people. Mill's explanation of the concept of utility in his work, Utilitarianism, is that people really do desire happiness, and since each individual desires their own happiness, it must follow that all of us desire the happiness of everyone, contributing to a larger social utility. Some versions of negative utilitarianism include: Motive utilitarianism was first proposed by Robert Merrihew Adams in 1976. Smart (1956) and McCloskey (1957) initially use the terms extreme and restricted utilitarianism but eventually everyone settled on the prefixes act and rule instead. " Instead, Feldman proposes a variant of act utilitarianism that results in there being no conflict between it and motive utilitarianism. In response to Smart's argument, Simon Knutsson (2019) has argued that classical utilitarianism and similar consequentialist views are roughly equally likely to entail killing the entirety of humanity, as they would seem to imply that one should kill existing beings and replace them with happier beings if possible. ", —— 1963. Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. " Nevertheless, his book The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785) was a required text at Cambridge and Smith (1954) says that Paley's writings were "once as well known in American colleges as were the readers and spellers of William McGuffey and Noah Webster in the elementary schools. We also switch to critical thinking when trying to deal with unusual situations or in cases where the intuitive moral rules give conflicting advice. The Christian religion, e.g., is "useful," "because it forbids in the name of religion the same faults that the penal code condemns in the name of the law." They are desired and desirable in and for themselves; besides being means, they are a part of the end. There are occasions, in which the hand of the assassin would be very useful.… The true answer is this; that these actions, after all, are not useful, and for that reason, and that alone, are not right. " Mill was quite clear about this, "A sacrifice which does not increase, or tend to increase, the sum total of happiness, it considers as wasted. Recent Work on the Limits of Obligation. It involves our saying that, even if the total quantity of pleasure in each was exactly equal, yet the fact that all the beings in the one possessed, in addition knowledge of many different kinds and a full appreciation of all that was beautiful or worthy of love in their world, whereas none of the beings in the other possessed any of these things, would give us no reason whatever for preferring the former to the latter. The term may also refer to pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from being somewhere. ", McCloskey, H. J. However, Singer not only argues that one ought to donate a significant proportion of one's income to charity, but also that this money should be directed to the most cost-effective charities, in order to bring about the greatest good for the greatest number, consistent with utilitarian thinking. [S]uppose that Homer is faced with the painful choice between saving Barney from a burning building or saving both Moe and Apu from the building...it is clearly better for Homer to save the larger number, precisely because it is a larger number.... Can anyone who really considers the matter seriously honestly claim to believe that it is worse that one person die than that the entire sentient population of the universe be severely mutilated? Happiness was also explored in depth by Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologica.. Thus, an action that results in the greatest pleasure for the utility of society is the best action, or as Jeremy Bentham, the founder of early Utilitarianism put it, as the greatest happiness of the greatest number. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do.… By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever according to the tendency it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words to promote or to oppose that happiness. G. E. Moore, writing in 1903, said:. Those of the first order are the more immediate consequences; those of the second are when the consequences spread through the community causing "alarm" and "danger. The general bad consequence is, the violation of some necessary or useful general rule.…. "Verschiedene Versionen des negativen Utilitarismus.". Mill not only viewed actions as a core part of utility, but as the directive rule of moral human conduct. Negative utilitarianism, in contrast, would not allow such killing.. • -traditionally, 2 major types of ethical systems have dominated the field • 1-deontological ethics-the locus of the value is the act or the kind of act • 2-teleological ethics-the locus of the value is the outcome or consequences of the act  This process holds for all cases of exceptions, and so the "rules" have as many "sub-rules" as there are exceptional cases, which, in the end, makes an agent seek out whatever outcome produces the maximum utility.. 4)", "SUMMA THEOLOGICA: The attainment of happiness (Prima Secundae Partis, Q. 2. 3, of 'Caesar is dead and Brutus is alive', that 'we might as well call a street a complex house, as these two propositions a complex proposition'.". The moral impulse of utilitarianism is constant, but our decisions under it are contingent on our knowledge and scientific understanding. His seminal work is concerned with the principles of legislation and the hedonic calculus is introduced with the words "Pleasures then, and the avoidance of pains, are the ends that the legislator has in view." Unlike other forms of consequentialism, such as egoism and altruism, utilitarianism considers the interests of all humans equally. Ch. "Future Generations, A Challenge for Moral Theory" (FD-Diss.). Adams concludes that "right action, by act-utilitarian standards, and right motivation, by motive-utilitarian standards, are incompatible in some cases. In business contexts, utilitarianism implies an obligation for businesses to do what they can to act in a way that maximizes happiness and minimizes suffering. A classic version of this criticism was given by H. J. McCloskey in his 1957 "sheriff scenario:". Suppose that a sheriff were faced with the choice either of framing a Negro for a rape that had aroused hostility to the Negroes (a particular Negro generally being believed to be guilty but whom the sheriff knows not to be guilty)—and thus preventing serious anti-Negro riots which would probably lead to some loss of life and increased hatred of each other by whites and Negroes—or of hunting for the guilty person and thereby allowing the anti-Negro riots to occur, while doing the best he can to combat them. ", Utilitarianism is typically taken to assess the rightness or wrongness of an action by considering just the consequences of that action. It would be absurd that while, in estimating all other things, quality is considered as well as quantity, the estimation of pleasures should be supposed to depend on quantity alone. That insight is that morally appropriatebehavior will not harm others, but instead increase happiness or‘utility.’ What is distinctive about utilitarianismis its approach in taking that insight and developing an account ofmoral evaluation and moral direction that expands on it. "Does Consequentialism Demand too Much? Kagan suggests that such a procedure might be justified on the grounds that "a general requirement to promote the good would lack the motivational underpinning necessary for genuine moral requirements" and, secondly, that personal independence is necessary for the existence of commitments and close personal relations and that "the value of such commitments yields a positive reason for preserving within moral theory at least some moral independence for the personal point of view. because, by hypothesis, I have an equal concern for each person involved, I am moved to give each of them an equal chance to be spared his loss" (p. 307). See Chapter I: Of the Principle of Utility. This pursuit of happiness is given a theological basis:. involves our saying, for instance, that a world in which absolutely nothing except pleasure existed—no knowledge, no love, no enjoyment of beauty, no moral qualities—must yet be intrinsically better—better worth creating—provided only the total quantity of pleasure in it were the least bit greater, than one in which all these things existed as well as pleasure. Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. (1997), "Innocence and Consequentialism" in Human Lives: Critical Essays on Consequentialist Bioethics, eds. To ask why I pursue happiness, will admit of no other answer than an explanation of the terms. The now forgotten significance of Paley can be judged from the title of Thomas Rawson Birks's 1874 work Modern Utilitarianism or the Systems of Paley, Bentham and Mill Examined and Compared. He lists several demanding conditions that need to be satisfied: individuals need to display instrumental rationality, markets need to be perfectly competitive, and income and goods need to be redistributed. He wrote in his System of Logic I iv. A common objection to utilitarianism is the inability to quantify, compare, or measure happiness or well-being. The latter part is important: utilitarians believe that everyone’s interests count. To inform a traveller respecting the place of his ultimate destination, is not to forbid the use of landmarks and direction-posts on the way. Ch.  The concept is also important in animal rights advocate Richard Ryder's rejection of utilitarianism, in which he talks of the "boundary of the individual," through which neither pain nor pleasure may pass.. He says, "utilitarianism values the happiness of people, not the production of units of happiness. , Harsanyi claims that his theory is indebted to::42, Harsanyi rejects hedonistic utilitarianism as being dependent on an outdated psychology saying that it is far from obvious that everything we do is motivated by a desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. , Harsanyi argues that the objection overlooks the fact that "people attach considerable utility to freedom from unduly burdensome moral obligations... most people will prefer a society with a more relaxed moral code, and will feel that such a society will achieve a higher level of average utility—even if adoption of such a moral code should lead to some losses in economic and cultural accomplishments (so long as these losses remain within tolerable limits). In economics, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive fromconsuming a product or service. 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